Diabetes is a condition that results from the imbalance of pancreatic islet hormones in the body. Produced by the pancreatic islet cells, the alpha and beta cells produce hormones like insulin and glucose. These hormones are responsible for proper increases and decreases of sugar levels in the blood. A reduction in the insulin results in hyperglycemia, which deprives cells of the needed fuel to function properly. Proper levels of insulin to decrease glucose, which is energy used by the body, work in conjunction with the pancreas in producing the insulin the body needs to regulate the acidity of the sugars in the blood. When hyperglycemia happens, any type of diabetic condition, like diabetes mellitus, will materialize within the body.
Diabetes mellitus is a part of two types of diabetes categories that are disorders resulting directly in the endocrine dysfunction of the pancreas, liver and kidneys. It is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism and is specifically as a result of inadequate insulin production by the pancreatic islet cells, causing a pancreatic disorder. A pancreatic disorder is the faulty use of insulin by the cells in the body. A build up of ketones in the kidneys or a liver dysfunction resulting in a pancreatic disorder, creates the breeding ground for diabetes mellitus. When a person is diagnosed with diabetes, his or her breath is said to have a fruity odor, and a test will reveal ketones in their urine.
The liver is an organ that filters the beta cell glucagon hormone to be processed into a form of blood glucose. The liver then removes excess glucose, which is now called glycogen from the blood, and stores it. If a liver disorder occurs, a diabetic condition is more than likely to become a serious health risk for the body. Playing a key role in removing the excess glucose from the blood and storing it as glycogen, the liver cells are very important to the proper function of the other major organs.
Diabetes affects the heart and other major organs such as the kidneys, the liver, and pancreas. The kidneys are especially susceptible to damage from a diabetic condition. With the liver and pancreas are unable to regulate the acidity in the blood sugars, these sugars began to build up in the kidneys. This creates a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. As blood levels of the ketones spill over into the urine, testing can be done to confirm a diabetic diagnosis. Typically, that diagnosis will be one of the two types of diabetes mellitus, type I and type II.
Diabetes type I was once named juvenile diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Type I diabetes becomes difficult to control when little or no insulin hormones are secreted by the body. This type I diabetes mellitus happens with an abrupt onset before the person reaches the age of thirty. Type II diabetes was once known as adult onset diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This type of diabetes is the more common and slower onset of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus type II is displayed in adults over thirty years old and more often in adults who are over fifty-five years old.